Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and many other desired products by growing certain plants and raising pets. Agriculture provides employment opportunities for the rural population on a large scale in underdeveloped and developing countries. It is an important source of income. … The increase in agricultural surpluses due to the increase in agricultural production and productivity tends to improve social welfare, especially in rural areas. Agriculture can be viewed as a system whose inputs include physical, cultural, economic and behavioral elements. In regions where agriculture is less developed, physical factors tend to be more important, but as human contribution increases, these physical controls become less important.
Agriculture is the science and art of growing plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the emergence of sedentary human civilization, which is why the cultivation of domestic species created an excess of food which allowed people to live in the city. After harvesting wild grains that started at least 105,000 years ago, new farmers started planting them about 11,500 years ago. The plants have been grown independently in at least 11 regions of the world.
Food classes include grains (cereals), vegetables, fruits, oils, meat, milk, mushrooms and eggs. The development of agriculture has allowed the human population to grow much more than what hunting and gathering could support. Wild grains were harvested and consumed at least 105,000 years ago. About 11,500 years ago, the eight founding Neolithic cultures, spelled and spelled wheat, peeled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chickpeas and flax were grown in the Levant. with the first known harvest of 5700 BC, followed by green beans, soybeans and azuki. About 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated by wild aurochs in the regions of modern Turkey and Pakistan. Pig production appeared in Eurasia, especially in Europe, East and South-West Asia, where the wild boar was first domesticated around 10,500 years ago. Sugar cane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea about 9,000 years ago.
Indian agriculture is made up of many crops, the main resources of which are rice and wheat. Indian farmers also grow legumes, potatoes, sugar cane, oil seeds and non-food items such as cotton, tea, coffee, rubber and jute (a shiny fiber used to make flax and twine). India is also a fishing giant. A total catch of around 3 million tonnes per year ranks India among the top 10 fishing countries in the world. Despite the overwhelming size of the agricultural sector, yields per hectare of crops in India are generally low by international standards. Another problem affecting Indian agriculture is the mismanagement of water resources.
In an era of increasing water scarcity and environmental crises, for example, the rice harvest in India is disproportionately distributed. One of the consequences of inefficient water use is that groundwater in rice-growing regions, such as Punjab, increases, while soil fertility decreases. The worsening of the agricultural situation is drought and adverse weather conditions in Asia. Although a monsoon with average precipitation is expected in 2000-01, the outlook for agricultural production during this period has not been considered bright. This is partly due to a relatively unfavorable distribution of precipitation, resulting in floods in some regions of the country and droughts in others.
Indian agriculture consists of many crops, whose main resources are rice and wheat. Indian farmers also grow legumes, potatoes, sugar cane, oilseeds and non-food items such as cotton, tea, coffee, rubber and jute (a bright fiber used to make flax and string).
India is also a fishing giant. A total catch of around 3 million tons per year ranks India among the top 10 fishing nations in the world. Another problem that affects Indian agriculture is the poor management of water resources. In an era of growing water scarcity and environmental crises, for example, rice harvesting in India is allocated disproportionately large amounts of water. A result of inefficient water use is that groundwater in rice producing regions, such as Punjab, is increasing, while soil fertility is decreasing. The worsening agricultural situation is drought and adverse weather conditions in Asia. Although a monsoon with average rainfall is expected in 2000-01, the outlook for agricultural production during this period was not considered bright. This is partly due to a relatively unfavorable distribution of rainfall, resulting in flooding in some parts of the country and droughts in others. According to FAO 2014 global agricultural statistics, India is the world’s largest producer of many fresh fruits such as bananas, mango, guava, papaya, lemon and vegetables such as chickpeas,milk, the main spices such as chili, ginger, fibrous crops such as jute, staples like millet and castor seeds. India is the second largest producer of wheat and rice, the main staple food in the world.
India is currently the world’s second largest producer of agricultural textile raw materials, roots and tubers, legumes, farmed fish, eggs, coconuts, sugar cane and many vegetables. India is ranked among the top five global producers of more than 80% of agricultural products, including many cash crops such as coffee and cotton, in 2010. India is one of the world’s top five producers of beef and poultry .
A 2008 report said that India’s population is growing faster than its ability to produce rice and wheat. While other recent studies claim that India can easily feed its growing population, as well as produce wheat and rice for world exports, it can reduce spoilage / wastage of staple foods, improve its infrastructure and increase the productivity of its farms like those achieved by other developing countries, such as Brazil and China
Aquaculture and sport fishing are among the fastest growing industries in India. Between 1990 and 2010, catches of fish in India doubled, while aquaculture crops tripled. In 2008, India was the sixth largest producer of sea and freshwater fisheries and the second largest producer of aquaculture fish. India exported 600,000 tonnes of fishery products to almost half the countries of the world. Although the nutritional standard available is 100% of the requirement, India is far behind in terms of 20% quality protein consumption, which must be addressed by making available protein-rich food products such as eggs, meat. , fish, chicken, etc. . at affordable prices.
India has recorded a constant national average annual increase in kilograms produced per hectare for certain agricultural products over the past 60 years. These gains come mainly from the green revolution in India, the improvement of road infrastructure and electricity production, knowledge of the benefits and reforms. Despite these recent results, agriculture has the potential to increase productivity and total production gains, as harvests in India still account for only 30% to 60% of the best sustainable harvests that can be produced by countries’ farms. developed and other developing countries. In addition, post-harvest losses due to poor infrastructure and unorganized retail trade have caused some of the highest food losses in the world in India