Cardiovascular – Related to the circulatory system, which includes the heart and blood vessels and transports nutrients and oxygen to body tissues and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them. Cardiovascular disease is a condition that affects the heart and blood vessels and includes arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, shock, endocarditis, diseases of the aorta, disorders of the peripheral vascular system and congenital heart disease. Heart and blood vessel disease (also called heart disease) includes many problems, many of which are related to a process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a disease that develops when a substance called plaque builds up on the walls of the arteries. This build-up narrows the arteries, making it difficult for blood to flow. If a blood clot forms, it can block blood circulation. This can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Common heart conditions include,

  1. coronary artery disease
  2. heart failure
  3. Cardiomyopathy
  4. Heart valve disease
  5. Arrhythmias

Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart strokes. Coronary artery is the most common type of heart disease in the United States. When a coronary artery becomes blocked (usually a blood clot), an area of heart tissue loses its blood supply. This reduction in blood can quickly damage and / or kill heart tissue, so prompt treatment in an emergency department and / or catheterization room is necessary to reduce loss of heart tissue. Loss of heart tissue due to a blockage, it can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, and even death. Timely treatment has reduced the number of deaths from heart attacks in recent years. Each year, approximately 790,000 people suffer heart attacks in the United States. These are the warning signs of a heart strokes,
• Chest pain
• Vertigo Nausea vomiting
• Fast or irregular heartbeat
• Short of breath
• Some people may experience anxiety, indigestion, and / or heartburn
• The weakness Dizziness

Women can experience different signs and symptoms of a heart attack than men. Jaw pain, shortness of breath, and nausea and vomiting may be more common in women with heart attacks than in men.
• Arrhythmias
• Cough
• Acidity
• Loss of appetite.
• Discomfort
Such symptoms in women lead to a late diagnosis if the symptoms are not considered possible signs of heart disease. Late diagnosis can further damage heart tissue or even lead to death. Women should exercise, quit smoking, start exercising, and see their doctor for regular checkups to control risk factors for heart disease.

Plaque can appear in the coronary and other arteries (for example, the carotid arteries). Some dishes may be hard or firm on the outside, but soft and pasty or sticky on the inside. If the hard shell-shaped area is opened, blood components such as platelets and small blood clots form a large clot and effectively block blood flow through the artery. The tissue of the heart downstream of the clot suffers from lack of blood and is damaged or dies. Patients who notice that their heartbeat is abnormally fast, slow, or irregular may experience irregular electrical impulses called arrhythmias. They also have symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, and anxiety. Arrhythmias can alter, slow down, or even stop the heart’s ability to pump blood. Therefore, people with arrhythmias should seek emergency medical attention, especially if the arrhythmia is persistent or causes symptoms related to the symptoms of a heart attack, such as chest pain. Ventricular fibrillation and atrial fibrillation are two examples of arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation can increase the risk of stroke.

Cardiomyopathy is a condition indicated by an abnormal heart muscle. Abnormal muscles make it difficult for your heart to pump blood to the rest of the body.
Main types of cardiomyopathy.
• Dilated (stretched and thinned muscle)
• Hypertrophic (thickened heart muscle)
• restrictive (a rare problem in which the heart muscle is not stretched normally, so that the chambers are not properly filled with blood)
Signs and symptoms of cardiomyopathy.
• Short of breath
• Tired
• Swelling of the feet, ankles and / or legs.
• Cough while lying down
• Vertigo
• Chest pain
• Irregular heartbeat

Heart failure (also called congestive heart failure) means that the pumping action of the heart cannot meet the body’s demand for blood; it does not mean that the heart is not pumping, it means a failure in one aspect of the heart’s ability to perform normal function. Most cases of heart failure are long-term chronic heart failure. A congenital heart defect is a defect in the development of the heart as an organ that is usually first noticed at birth, although some are not detected until adulthood. There are many types of congenital heart defects, and some do not require treatment, but others may require surgical repair.

The American Heart Association lists at least 18 different types of congenital heart defects, many of them have additional anatomical variations. Congenital heart defects put these patients at increased risk of developing arrhythmias, heart failure, heart valve infections, and other problems. A cardiologist (often a pediatric cardiologist) should be consulted on how to treat these defects. Recent advances have allowed surgeons to repair many of these defects so that the patient can develop normally. The electrical activity of the heart can be observed with an electrocardiogram (also called an ECG or electrocardiogram). ECGs are tests that give the doctor important information about heart rate, heart damage, or a heart attack, and can provide other important information or clues about the patient’s condition. Additionally, EKGs can be compared to past and future EKGs to see changes in the electrical activity of the heart over time or after treatments.

A stress test measures the ability of a person’s heart to the body’s demand for more blood during stress. A continuous measurement of the electrical activity of the heart (a continuous EKG or a rhythm strip) is recorded with the heart rate and blood pressure as a person’s stress (exercise) gradually increases on a treadmill. The information helps show how well the heart responds to the body’s demands and can provide information to help diagnose and treat problems. Chest x-rays can provide limited information about the condition of the heart. Chest x-rays are used to provide the doctor with a view of the heart and lungs to help determine if any abnormalities are present.

These two radiographs show a relatively normal heart on the left. On the right radiograph, an enlarged heart (primarily the left ventricle) is easily visible, suggesting that the heart’s main pumping chamber is not functioning normally. Also, x-rays can show fluid buildup in the lungs, possibly due to heart failure.
• A thin tube is placed in a blood vessel in the leg or arm and passed through the heart to the opening of a coronary artery.
• The dye is placed in the tube and enters the artery.
• A special x-ray machine that takes pictures of the dye, showing a narrowing or blockage of the artery.
• The same tube can be used with special tips to open the coronary artery by angioplasty (a small balloon is inflated) or to place a wire mesh (stent) that expands to keep the artery open.

Most types of heart disease are chronic, but they progress slowly, such as heart failure or cardiomyopathy. They start with minor symptoms that often get worse slowly and require long-term medical treatment.
Symptoms that can withstand treatment.
• Swelling of the ankles.
• tired
• Water retention
• short of breath

Lifestyle changes (eg, oxygen at home, limited activity) may be necessary. Take medications prescribed by your doctor. Follow the doctor’s diet and exercise plan for you. If you experience new or worsening symptoms, see your doctor immediately. Advances in medications that can help reduce symptoms and delay damage from heart disease have helped most patients with heart disease. Medications are available to do the following:
• Decreased blood pressure (antihypertensive)
• Decreased heart rate (beta-blockers)
• Lowers cholesterol to reduce plaque (diet, statins)
• Helps stabilize abnormal heart rhythms (ablation, pacemaker)
• Reduces or prevents coagulation in the coronary arteries
• Improve the pumping capacity of the heart of a person with heart disease (inotropic agents)

Take heart medications prescribed by your doctor to control your condition. Never skip doses of your medications or stop taking them without first talking to your doctor. Preventing heart disease and reducing risk is possible by adopting a healthy lifestyle. The basics of a heart-healthy lifestyle include:
• Never smoke and never stop smoking (and using other tobacco products)
• Eat a nutritious diet (lots of vegetables and fruits, less fat, sugar and meat)
• Avoid alcohol or drink no more than one drink per day for women and no more than 2 drinks per day for men.
• If necessary, medical control of diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterol.
• Encourage your friends and family to help you. Perhaps they could benefit from your good example!

Know your family history of heart disease. Manage your stress levels. Know the warning signs of a heart attack and stroke and act quickly if you notice signs and symptoms in yourself or others. Watch your blood sugar level and watch for signs and symptoms of diabetes. Pay attention to snoring; This may indicate that you have sleep apnea, which increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. Eating a heart healthy diet is the primary key to preventing, curing, and slowing heart disease. Most cardiologists recommend the following foods.
Heart healthy food
• Fruits
• legumes
• Vegetables
• whole grains
Foods that can help reduce cholesterol levels.
• hazelnuts
• vegetable oils
• seeds
Eating fish about twice a week is a good source of protein. Some researchers have suggested that a more vegetarian diet could reverse aspects of coronary artery disease such as plaque size. Limit your intake of saturated fat, trans fat, red meat, sugar, sugary drinks and sodium to protect your heart and blood vessels. Although heart disease can be treated with many methods, preventing or curing it by adopting a reasonable lifestyle seems to be one of the best ways to reduce this common health problem.

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