As the world rushes to identify the best treatments and vaccines for coronaviruses, John Cahill summarizes the latest developments is possible COVID-19 therapies. There are no medications available to treat COVID-19 yet. This did not prevent the launch of hundreds of studies during the first months of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Read on to discover what approaches scientists believe are effective in relieving the symptoms of COVID-19, what medications can cure severe cases, and other medications that could prevent infection. Find out what these experimental drugs can offer in the fight against COVID-19.
Those who have worked in the regulation, research, development or manufacture of pharmaceutical products have probably been drawn to the many scientific and technical advances that are accelerating in response to the current global emergency. Caused by SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 coronavirus has spread worldwide at a rapid rate.
For those in an industry who understand the lengthy and costly process of drug discovery, testing and trials, the speed and urgency with which the pharmaceutical industry is moving towards the development of a vaccine and effective treatment is a source of pride. . Researchers, companies, and regulators now understand that while ensuring safety, efficiency, and quality remain paramount, speed is now paramount.
The drug Favilavi, which was the first approved coronavirus drug in China, would have been shown to be safe in treating COVID-19 in a clinical trial with 70 patients.
China’s first COVID-19 vaccine is expected to be ready for clinical trials in late April. Inovio Pharmaceuticals plans to begin human clinical trials with its INO-4800 coronavirus vaccine in April this year. Clinical trial results are expected to be available in September 2020. Inovio aims to produce one million doses of the vaccine by the end of 2020 for additional clinical trials and / or emergency use of the vaccine.
Regeneron has stepped up its schedule to ensure that doses of a potential vaccine (REGN3048 and REGN3051) and treatment are ready for human clinical trials in early summer. Large-scale manufacturing could begin in mid-April.
Gilead’s Remdesivir (GS-5734), a broad-spectrum experimental antiviral originally designed to treat Ebola, has been the subject of clinical trials in China. The trials were conducted in 761 patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at various hospitals in Wuhan. The test results are expected to be available in the coming weeks.
Moderna’s mRNA-1273 vaccine will undergo a phase I clinical trial in April with support from the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and they are preparing for a phase II study. The vaccine targets the Coronavirus Spike (S) protein.
Many clinical trials with chloroquine are underway to combat COVID-19, this drug has been shown to be safe and effective against malaria for decades. Patients with coronavirus administered with the drug chloroquine phosphate achieved better fever reduction and shorter recovery times in clinical trials conducted in Chinese hospitals. Large-scale clinical trials with this drug are imminent.
US clinical stage biopharmaceutical company Altimmune is developing an intranasal COVID-19 vaccine (similar to NasoVAX). Animal studies are progressing.
As cases of the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) skyrocket everywhere, from Madrid to Manhattan, crushing hospitals one after another and pushing the number of deaths globally beyond 17,000, the sprint to find The treatments have accelerated considerably. Drugs that stop the new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), could save the lives of critically ill patients, protect healthcare workers and others at high risk of infection and Reduce the time of patients to spend in hospital beds. Last week, the WHO announced a major study to compare treatment strategies in a simplified clinical trial design that clinicians around the world can join. Other trials are also underway In total, at least 12 possible treatments with COVID-19 are being tested, including drugs already used for HIV and malaria, test compounds that work against a variety of viruses in animal experiments, and antibody-rich plasma from people who have been recovered from COVID -19.
Thomas Gallagher says More than one strategy may work and effective treatments may work at different stages of infection, a coronavirus researcher at the Campus of Health Sciences at Loyola University in Chicago. The big challenge at the clinical level may be determining when to use the drugs. “The lesson is that you start testing now,” says Arthur Caplan, a bioethicist at Langone Medical Center at New York University. “Be a part of what you do to be able to act quickly and make the most effective interventions stand out.” To this end, WHO announced on March 20 the launch of SOLIDARITY, an unprecedented coordinated effort to collect robust scientific data quickly during a pandemic. The study, which could include several thousand patients in dozens of countries, emphasized simplicity so that even hospitals overwhelmed by a wave of COVID-19 patients could participate.
The WHO website will randomize patients according to local standard care or one of the four regimens, using only those available in the patient’s hospital. Doctors will simply record the day the patient left the hospital or died, the length of the hospital stay, and whether the patient needed oxygen or ventilation. “That’s it,” says Ana Maria Henao Restrepo, medical health officer at the WHO Department of Vaccines and Biological Products. The design is not blinded, patients will know they have received a candidate drug, which could cause a placebo effect, Henao Restrepo acknowledges. But she says it is in the interest of speed. “We are doing it in record time.” The agency hopes to begin enrolling patients this week.
Rather than taking years to develop and test compounds from scratch, the WHO and others want to reuse drugs that are already approved for other diseases and have acceptable safety profiles. They are also studying investigational drugs that have worked well in animal studies against the other two deadly coronaviruses, which cause SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). And they focus on enough compounds to treat large numbers of patients.