World Sleep Day

World Sleep Day

Important of Sleep in daily life

Millions of people complain that they are not getting enough sleep. Most of the time, stress is the main culprit. However, there are several causes of sleep deprivation that require medical attention. Even excessive sleep itself is a sleep disorder.The theme for this year’s World Sleep Day is “better sleep, better life, better planet”
World Sleep Day is organized annually by the World Sleep Society on the Friday before the spring equinox in spring, which is March 13 of this year. The day is dedicated to raising awareness of all aspects of sleep, including the importance of good sleep, sleeping pills and the social aspects of sleep problems. Through this dissemination of information, the World Sleep Organization aims to reduce the global burden of sleep disorders.
The main sleep disorders are mentioned below.

Insomnia:
Insomnia is a condition in which a person cannot fall asleep and stay asleep for a certain period of time and has trouble waking up early in the morning for at least 3 nights / week for at least 1 month (primary insomnia). Primary insomnia generally does not have an underlying health condition. It usually occurs due to stress and disruption of sleep schedule. Whatever the type, insomniacs have low energy levels. They lack focus and are therefore less productive. Insomnia often leads to anxiety and depression
At one point, many adults suffer from short-term (acute) insomnia, which lasts for days or weeks. This is usually the result of stress or a traumatic event. But some people suffer from long-term (chronic) insomnia that lasts for a month or more. Insomnia can be the main problem or be associated with other medical conditions or medications. If insomnia prevents you from working during the day, see your doctor to identify the cause of your sleep problem and how to treat it. If your doctor thinks you may have a sleep disorder, you may be referred to a sleep center for special tests.

Narcolepsy:
Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, hallucinations, drowsiness, and sleep paralysis. Although the exact cause of narcolepsy remains unknown, it can appear as an autoimmune disease, due to genetic factors (less common) or as a result of brain damage (rarely). Autoimmune disorders are those that occur when your immune system begins to act against healthy cells in the body. In the case of narcolepsy, immune cells are said to attack hypocretin-containing brain cells. These cells are responsible for maintaining the sleep-wake cycle.
People with narcolepsy are very sleepy during the day and may unintentionally fall asleep during normal activities. In narcolepsy, the normal boundary between awake and asleep is blurred, so sleep patterns can occur when a person is awake. People with narcolepsy may also experience hallucinations and sleep paralysis while sleeping or waking up, as well as disturbed nighttime sleep and vivid nightmares.

Narcolepsy is diagnosed through a physical exam, a medical history, and sleep studies. If you have narcolepsy, the most effective treatment is usually a combination of medications and behavioral changes. People diagnosed with narcolepsy should seek the advice of educational networks and support groups. Being diagnosed with narcolepsy and managing symptoms can be overwhelming, and the disorder is not well understood by the general public. Help learn best practices and gain support through others with the disorder.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA):
OSA is a condition in which the patient temporarily stops breathing while sleeping, at least 5 times an hour for about ten seconds each. These respiratory pauses cause a drop in oxygen levels in the blood. As a result, the person tends to wake up several times during the night. Obesity is one of the main causes of OSA. However, OSA can also occur due to certain endocrine disorders (those that affect hormones), large tonsils, and kidney or heart failure.
In the third edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3), obstructive sleep apnea is classified as a sleep-related respiratory disorder and is divided into two categories, namely OSA for adults and OSA. To be classified as obstructive, hypopnea must experience one or more of the following symptoms:
1. snoring during the event,
2. increased flattening of oronasal flow
3. paradoxical thoracoabdominal breathing during the event if none of them did not is present during the event, is classified as central hypopnea.

Many people experience episodes of OSA for only a short time. This may be the result of an upper respiratory infection that causes a stuffy nose, as well as a swollen throat or tonsillitis that temporarily produces very enlarged tonsils. Temporary episodes of OSA syndrome can also occur in people under the influence of a drug (such as alcohol) that can excessively relax their body tone and interfere with the normal activation of sleep mechanisms.

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) or Willis-Ekbom disease (WED):
Restless leg syndrome is a condition in which the patient feels an overwhelming need to move his legs. Symptoms appear more frequently at night and at rest. As a result, the person has trouble falling asleep. RLS is often seen in patients with Parkinson’s disease, although the cause is not yet known. If you have a family history of RLS, you probably have it, too. Some other causes of restless leg syndrome include pregnancy, caffeine, alcohol, certain medications, and iron deficiency.

The main symptom is a desire to move the legs. Common RLS accompaniment features include:
1.sensations that begin after the break. The feeling usually begins after you have been lying down or sitting for a long time, such as in a car, plane, or movie theater.
2. Relief of movement. The sensation of RLS decreases with movement, such as stretching, trembling in the legs, stimulation, or walking.
3. Worsening of symptoms at night. Symptoms occur mainly at night.
4. contraction of the legs at night. RLS may be associated with another more common condition, called periodic limb sleep movement, that causes leg contractions and kicking, possibly throughout the night, while sleeping.
Some people with RLS never see a doctor because they fear they won’t be taken seriously. But RLS can interfere with your sleep and cause daytime sleepiness and affect your quality of life. Talk to your doctor if you think you may have RLS.

Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD):
PMLD may seem quite similar to RLS in terms of common signs and symptoms. However, unlike restless leg syndrome, where symptoms appear when the person is awake, a PMLD patient shakes his legs during sleep at regular intervals of 5 to 90 seconds. The patient is generally unaware of the condition, and the bed partner often describes the symptoms. If you have this condition, you will feel like you are not getting enough sleep at night, and therefore you will be sleepy during the day. Periodic limb movement disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of frequent limb movements during sleep. This occurs mainly in the lower parts of the body, such as the toes, ankles, knees, and hips. It can also, in some cases, appear on the upper extremities of the body. These movements can cause the patient to wake up, and if so, an interruption in sleep can cause excessive sleepiness during the day.

Polysomnography is recognized as the evaluation method that provides the most accurate information on sleep quality, sleep structure, and physiological parameters during sleep (breathing, heart rate, movements). Therefore, the diagnosis of PLMD can generally only be made in the laboratory. Since people are generally unaware of the cause of their daytime deficiencies, PLMS during sleep is found primarily through laboratory tests rather than clinical complaints. The PSG measurements assigned to the diagnosis of PLMD are essentially based on electromyography (EMG) that measures muscle activity. EMG electrodes are usually placed on the anterior tibial muscle.

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